网络互联网新媒体危机公关分析外文翻译文献

网络互联网新媒体危机公关分析外文翻译文献 网络互联网新媒体危机公关分析外文翻译文献 (文档含中英文对照即英文原文和中文翻译)

网络互联网新媒体危机公关分析外文翻译文献 原文: Blogging PR: An exploratory analysis of public relations web Keywords: Weblog Public relations Interactivity Usability Abstract: Although there are ever more web on the Internet, this is an area that has been little researched in public relations, and where they have been analyzed it has been as a tool for communication rather than a primary information source in the public relations body of knowledge. This paper provides an exploratory study of the structure and content of 67 b on public relations to determine what issues they deal with and whether they are a tool for the theoretical development of the field. In addition to their content we have looked at the structure, usability and interactivity of the b. 1. Introduction B are seen by some authors as major tools for online communication, whereas by others they are little more than experts’ opinions on a given issue (Herrera & Celaya, 2006). They are such a recent medium (beginning in 1996) that the concept remains controversial and arguable (Barton, 2005). In any event their persuasive and informative function is of great relevance as they can obtain opinion leadership with a huge influence over public opinion. In this sense Sweetser and Metzgar (2007) have demonstrated that in crisis situations, people who read personal b have a lower perception of crisis for an organization. The rise of b seems to be unbridled and it is a phenomenon that is occurring in all knowledge fields (Jenkins, 2006). There are currently over 60 million b in existence and 75,000 new ones each day (Cohen & Krishnamurthy, 2006). More than 14 million people worldwide keep a personal diary on the Internet and a further 100 million (one third of the active Web universe) read b habitually (Gordillo, 2007). Every six months the

网络互联网新媒体危机公关分析外文翻译文献 blogosphere population doubles, and it is today sixty times greater than three years ago. No communication medium has ever burgeoned so rapidly. Weblog writers produce 700,000 to 1.3million articles every day—almost one a second (Gordillo, 2007). Since their arrival b have been changing, as have their social perception, objectives and cultural, economic, political and media impact (Yang, 2007). Web have diversified and are developing in such diverse spheres as education, business, politics, journalism and public relations. According to Hallett (2005), the communicative use of web in public relations has twofold foundations. On the one hand they enable professionals to analyze the market and ascertain the opinions of their audiences to gauge public opinion on a business, product or brand. On the other, they are a major technique for participating and giving opinions both personal and organizational, be it by posting comments on other b or creating one’s own. This study, however, does not focus on analyzing corporate b, which are used as a public relations tool, but looks at b concerning public relations in which public relations or one of its activities is the main theme. Our aim is to analyze what public relations b are about, or what issues are dealt with in blog posts, in addition to any structural elements of this new communicative tool that may affect its efficacy to transmit information: objectives, structure and degree of usability, interactivity, and level of connectivity. 2. Method Databases of public relations b are few and far between. One of the most comprehensive, and regularly updated, is the Online Public Relations directory, created by James H. Norton. We have chosen this database which encompasses a public relations b directory split into four categories: Public Relations General (67 b), Directories and Aggregators (7),Miscellaneous (3), and High-Tech PR (8). In order to avoid any bias resulting from the categorization criteria, for the purposes of this study we took 67 b from the Public Relations General category. The data collection was carr out between October 2006 and January 2007. Therefore, the sample selected for analysis consists of 67 b on public relations from around the world. For the data collection we drew up an analysis template that measures 50 items which were later categorized to create the main analysis variables. These variables were: (a) Author: The b were classified as personal, organizational written by an

网络互联网新媒体危机公关分析外文翻译文献 employee, and purely organizational and, therefore, impersonal. (b) Content: Analysis was carr out of both the issues arising in the blog posts and the images or other resources. The content of b is t up with its pursued objectives, which were also examined. (c) Interactivity: This measures the degree of user participation, according to the interactive resources available on the blog. These include: the option for external users to post comments or contact the blog author by e-mail, podcasting, audio and video downloads, sales of products and services, user surveys, and the possibility of subscribing. (d) Usability: This is a necessary requisite to develop efficient interactivity (Hallahan, 2001). This variable analyzes how easy it is to use the weblog for those who access it by means of: search engines on other b, internal search engines, list of previous files, list of most recent blog posts, and calendar. (e) Connectivity: This measures the extent to which the blog is linked to other websites, be it through other linked b or websites of interest. The analysis focuses on the descriptive statistical data on all of the items under study, in addition to the contingency tables and variable correlation. Given the characteristics of the study variables – largely nominal and ordinal – the Gamma index was used as the most suitable correlation index for the analysis. 3. Results A look at the date when the b analyzed were created reveals that the lion’s share was set up very recently. Only 31.3% go back earlier than 2004. By contrast, 61.2% of the sample b were created between 2004 and the present. It was not possible to ascertain the creation date for five b (7.5%). One of the defining paradigms of b is that they are written in real time. With this new medium we shall no longer speak of frequency but of real time, of ongoing contributions. The upside of this is that they are more dynamic and enriched with a range of conversational styles, but they are lacking in contemplation (Orihuela, 2006). Despite these characteristics, over half of the b analyzed (53.7%) receive new blog posts around every five days. Only 11.9% are updated or include new input on a daily basis. 3.1. Authorship In their study into corporate b Lee, Hwang, and Lee (2006) split them into five categories: the employee blog, written by any worker in the company; the group blog, which is a workers’ blog kept not by one person alone but by a

网络互联网新媒体危机公关分析外文翻译文献 set of experts; the executive blog, written by management; the promotional blog, which is an impersonal corporate blog seeking to spark discussion on products and events; and lastly, the newsletter blog, which is also impersonal and aims to represent the company stance through its information. We have used this blog authorship classification for our own study but brought it down to only three analysis categories: personal b, by public relations professionals; company b written by an employee, 2 either non-management or management; and public relations company b. The largest share (77.6%) of the b analyzed in this study is personal, written primarily by public relations professionals. Corporate b written by employees or management constitute a much smaller proportion (16.4%). Impersonal corporate b were by far the smallest group (4.5%). This data corroborates the fact that one of the main characteristics of b is that they are personal, and users seek this ‘human voice’ in their communication (Jenkins, 2006). Impersonal corporate b are not as widely accepted by the blogger community (Lee et al., 2006: p. 320) because they are seen as marketing tools or as simple filters from the public relations department. Table 1 Objectives of analyzed b Blog’s objectives Give personal opinions Comment on current affairs Inform about personal life Inform about products/services Inform about an organization Theory development N 54 62 26 34 28 19 % 80.6 92.6 38.8 50.7 41.8 28.3 With regard to the type of personal b, these results match those found in other research. Herring, Scheidt, Bonus, and Wright (2004), in a study conducted in 2003 on a sample of 199 b, also observed that most b (70%) were personal. Indeed, according to this study, personal information is one of the defining characteristics of b. However, what is most striking in these results is the low percentage of corporate b written by employees, given the powerful communicative tool that they constitute for organizations. Some companies have caught on to their

网络互联网新媒体危机公关分析外文翻译文献 potential and encourage their staff to keep b. These contain personal, subjective communication that is not directly sent out by the company but by a third party who gives their own opinions and the information is therefore perceived as impartial and unbiased. However, the value of this type of communication lies not only in its impartiality but also in the personal information provided, which gives a human face to the company and builds up a positive community vision around it and its products (Lee et al., 2006). 3.2. Content Table 1 shows the main objectives of the b analyzed. As can be seen, most seek to comment upon topical affairs in public relations profession, as well as to voice personal opinions on these issues. Given that the b analyzed are largely personal, interest in the author’s contributions is understandable. Conversely, the low percentage of web that aim to debate issues surrounding public relations theory is surprising. If we look at the contents we find that 88.1% of the b analyzed contain comments on various aspects of public relations and 85.1% on other communicative affairs. Commentaries on b and communication in the blogosphere are also considerable (74.6%), albeit in a lower proportion. It is worth highlighting that comments on aspects of the author’s personal life, such as trips, hobbies, family and professional achievements, arise in 50.7% of the b. This reveals that web are communicative tools with a strong personal emphasis in all areas discussed. Overall, this data suggests that b belonging to an organization are more serious and formal, in both their content and the blog posts. Moreover, they fundamentally provide information on their own company and publicize its website. This contrasts with personal b where the tone can range from the strictly formal to the colloquial. The results also reveal differences in the contents of professional and non-professional public relations b. The former explore issues in public relations and communication in general, as well as the blogosphere and the Internet. However, the b written by non-professionals provide opinions on advertising, television and other more informative aspects. These do not contain experiences but opinions and perception of the field. Broadly speaking, there is no advertising on b. Although 41.8% of the sample includes banners, these are not advertising of the blog but traditional

  • 新媒体环境下的政府危机公关外文翻译文献

    新媒体环境下的政府危机公关外文翻译文献

    新媒体环境下的政府危机公关外文翻译文献...

    贡献者:网络收集
    983785
  • 微博危机公关分析外文翻译文献

    微博危机公关分析外文翻译文献

    微博危机公关分析外文翻译文献...

    贡献者:网络收集
    569590
  • 网络营销策略分析外文翻译文献

    网络营销策略分析外文翻译文献

    网络营销策略分析外文翻译文献...

    贡献者:网络收集
    476066
  • 新媒体环境下的政府危机公关策略分析

    新媒体环境下的政府危机公关策略分析

    新媒体环境下的政府危机公关策略分析...

    贡献者:网络收集
    186031
  • 新媒体与新闻媒体监督外文翻译文献

    新媒体与新闻媒体监督外文翻译文献

    新媒体与新闻媒体监督外文翻译文献...

    贡献者:网络收集
    622291
  • 大众媒体新媒体外文翻译文献综述

    大众媒体新媒体外文翻译文献综述

    大众媒体新媒体外文翻译文献综述...

    贡献者:网络收集
    154916
  • 互联网网络营销外文翻译文献

    互联网网络营销外文翻译文献

    互联网网络营销外文翻译文献...

    贡献者:网络收集
    556459
  • 网络购物行为分析中英文对照外文翻译文献

    网络购物行为分析中英文对照外文翻译文献

    网络购物行为分析中英文对照外文翻译文献...

    贡献者:网络收集
    694818
  • 网友在搜
    格雷墓园挽歌原文 lenovoS810t刷机包 inoreader 添加源 cxf jaxws json 怕的笔顺 passkit testing 触手tvpc网页 小葱拌豆腐的做法 火影忍者忍界大战1 差评 日语 disneyland sea that s what i am 高通msm8610刷机包 kanda tetsushi 太上老君丹炉图片 河南工业大学男女比例 bit dungeon2安卓版 dungeon souls 废土2 撒旦 coloranimation 2x 1 m x 2 1 mike taller sago custom Realconfrontation iphone mail drop patrick sion image file selection 欧莱雅l oreal 刘耀文哪个学校的 浪琴 律雅 fe电动方程式车队 Grammar precatice 深圳网吧二手电脑出售 串联混动 乐町天猫 windows c调用go 开源图书 jsp include 刷新 nds 光与影的英雄 下载 umd352magnet 忍者神龟安卓游戏 反叛的鲁鲁修code CS中的snowboy dv 1545磁力 东四环燕莎奥莱 mida953 ed2k skott瑞典歌手 vn0a36jmo8v1 kiss or fight 在线 安桥sr444评测 小学音乐器材名称 男几岁穿和服 mantovani in mexico 油画颜料的英文名 惠普8760w dc上k2200m f pxf35c ps4 fifa17捏脸数据 taketake it all

    声明:本站内容部分源于网络转载,出于传递更多信息之目的,并不意味着赞同其观点或证实其描述。文章内容仅供参考,请咨询相关专业人士。

    如果无意之中侵犯了您的版权,或有意见、反馈或投诉等情况, 联系我们:点击这里给我发消息

    Copyright © 2016 All Rights Reserved 人文网 手机站